“Ciborgues, como a filósofa Donna Haraway estabeleceu, não são reverentes. Eles não lembram o cosmos”.
The expansion of the market tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, as well as the constant changes in the competitive environment, are making the organizations and their processes increasingly flexible, since the impositions end up transforming the entire system adopted in the institutions.
Nowadays, organizations really need to break their different paradigms, consequently preparing their developers for a new change process tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, which aims to verify the problems in the institution, coming to repair them.
Thus, what becomes essential for organizations is the need for change aimed at solving problems, in order to make them grow in the competitive market that ends up requiring great efforts from them tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.
This bibliographic research deals with the theme The Process of Change and the growth of companies , with globalization and the formation of people as a backdrop .
The process changes the qua l passes civilization since the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century English, leads companies to constantly revise strategies and implement new system are to remain in the market and grow.
Brazil, which enjoyed market protection until the end of the 90s, entered this competitive race when the borders were opened to international capital , at the turn of the 80s to the 90s with the Collor Government. In this way, globalization has become a common currency in the daily lives of companies, promoting the interconnection between nations in a way that the acts of one influence the other; communication takes place effectively through the powerful resources of communication and information technologies tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Distances are shortened and borders are narrowed, allowing for common experiences in the field of economics, politics, and the social.
Amid this movement of ideas tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, of incessant and accelerated development are the people who make up the human capital of companies. They also have to be prepared for the new times and managers are attentive to the needs, valuation, optimization of the human factor to add efforts towards the growth of the organization.
As a research problem tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, as a question that will guide our research, we have chosen the following question : how can companies prepare themselves to face the constant changes that are occurring in society?
The general objective of this work is to investigate the situation of companies in the midst of the transformations that society undergoes; and the specific objectives are: research on the phenomenon of Globalization; know the models of existing companies; investigate people management and training methods to improve productivity and commitment to the company.
We start from the hypothesis that in the globalization process, companies “learned” tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado to live with changes and promote continuous training projects for their employees.
The method adopted for the development of this work is bibliographic research, more specifically tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, exploratory research whose discipline is the collection and selection of data, the choice of bibliographic sources, which in this case are the books and articles related to the theme.
The commitment of people must be considered as the central strategy of all Human Resources systems, as the practice of these processes has great pedagogical power tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Like today, Selection, Performance Evaluation, Performance Rewards and Education and Training are structured around a people control strategy.
The survival of the contemporary company depends on the capacity for conscious participation, knowledge, strategic action and thinking and innovation. These characteristics will be acquired only by companies that design their human resources management instruments so that they continue to improve their commitment to economic rewards, invest in developing commitments to the work done by people and the company in which they work.
DEFINITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS
According to Fonseca (2007), have mo globalization enjoys many definitions en will there is a single, universally accepted definition , and, like other nuclear concepts of science, its exact meaning is debatable. Thus, we can define Globalization as follows:
” Globalization has been when the acts of social agents from one place may have conseq u significant ences to” Third distant “; how to understand time space (in reference to the way in which instant communication has eroded the limitations of distance and time in organization and social interaction); as accelerated interdependence understood as the intensification of the intertwining between national economies and societies, in such a way that the events of one country have a direct impact on others; as a world in a process of shrinking (erosion of borders and geographical barriers to socioeconomic activity); and, among other concepts, such as global integration, reorganization of interregional power relations, awareness of the global situation and intensification of interregional interconnection ” (FONSECA, 2007)
Another definition is feature coffee to the by Nunes (2008), which enhances both the opening of the economy and the borders between the countries as the rapprochement between people, with consequent cultural exchanges.
“The term globalization designates a phenomenon of opening economies and their respective borders as a result of the sharp growth in international trade in goods, the intensification of capital movements, the circulation of people, knowledge and information tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, provided both by the development of transport and communications, or for the increasing opening of borders to international trade ” (NUNES, 2008)
According to Fonseca (2007), globalization is the set of transformations in the world political and economic order , the result of a process of the last decades . The key to change is the integrated markets are ing- a “village-global”, being exploited by large international corporations , when the s and S tates leave , Paula ti n ously , the ba tariff rreiras as a way to protect -If front of the competition foreign products the same and m to open up to trade and internationa capital is . The revolution in the field of information technologies , which makes it possible to standardize the sources of information provided by television and the Internet, goes beyond the scope of the economy , causing a certain cultural homogeneity among countries.
“ The concept of globalization denotes much more than the expansion of social relations and activities across regions and borders. And that it suggests an increasing magnitude or intensity of global flows, so much so that States and societies are increasingly entangled in world systems and networks of interaction. In conseq u ence addition, events and Fenomen distant can go on to have serious internal impacts, while local events can generate overall weight repercussions. In other words, globalization represents a significant change in the spatial reach of action and social organization , which moves to an interregional or intercontinental scale ” (FONSECA, 2007)
Oliveira (2006) also highlights the rather peculiar importance that the expression has acquired in recent times and states that globalization began with the great European navigations of the 15th and 16th centuries, when sailors embarked on long voyages in search of new territories with a view to colonization . It ranks the second stage of globalization by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century ( development of telecommunications , by investments abroad, by the colonization of Africa, Asia and the Far East ) and the third stage is marked by the post-war decades.
Suzuki (2001) has a contemporary view of globalization, considering it as corresponding to the effects of the Third Industrial Revolution, the formation of economic blocks and free trade areas and the interdependence of world markets.
As for the origin of globalization, although there is consensus on the beginning of the use of the term, since the mid -1980s, replacing concepts such as internationalization and transnationalization, its origin is controversial, as it would be marked by historical facts when people started their march towards the colonization of other peoples and territories, now as explorers and now with invading armies.
Thus, Singer (2000) locates the beginning of the internationalization process of mercantile production, which culminated in overcoming distances and political barriers between nations, from the exploratory trips from Marco Polo to the Far East, in the 13th century, whereas for Lucci (2000), economic globalization is a process that occurs in waves, whose advances and setbacks are separated by intervals that can last for centuries.
“(…) The first globalizing wave and it happened on the occasion of the rise of the Roman Empire. While the Greeks devoted themselves to philosophy in their city-states and islands, the Romans articulated their legal system, spread the use of currency and protected trade against attacks by pirates. With the fall of the Roman Empire, political and commercial feudalization ended, putting an end to the first globalization movement ”(LUCCI, 2000)
The concept of globalization has evolved over time, but it originated as a movement that encouraged the growth of developing countries.
” Originally, this id and was was supported by sectors that supported the increased participation of developing countries, particularly NICs (New Industrialized Countries) Latin American and Asian in an economy the internationally dministrada . Only at the end of the 1980s, and particularly in the 1990s, did the term globalization come to be used mainly in two senses: a positive one, describing the process of integration of the world economy; and a regulation prescribing a development strategy based on rapid integration with the world economy ” . ( CHERIS , 200 6 )
Singer (2000), in relation to the discovery of Brazil, affirms that the great discoveries were politically and religiously motivated, but their basis was commercial, since the Portuguese navigators sought precious metals and other salable products in the world market and because they had not found or gold or silver immediately, invested in the production of cane sugar with labor and African labor . In this sense, there is no more explicit globalization, because sugar in the Northeast used Dutch capital, was transported on Portuguese ships, to be consumed in Europe and taxed by the Portuguese crown.
The AND OMPANIES M ecânico B urocrá optical
Max Weber (apud GUIMARÃES , 2000) presents the foundations of bureaucratic organization as a static organizational model suitable for stabilized social and technical situations, which would allow long-term strategic planning and centralized divisions.
According to Kotler (2000), t anto the development as the implementation of strategies create a future based on knowledge with a view to and stabelecer geographical region and how to increase actions to improve performance.
The control of people’s activities is based on the responsibilities defined by the position held, being carried out by the immediate superior. “In fact, these goals are, for the most part, above expectations in efficient management systems or below expectations in poorly managed companies “. (ANSOFF apud CARVALHO, 2000 )
The selection of individuals for the company is oriented towards attracting people who are able to follow production patterns and behaviors recognized by the company’s culture as acceptable.
The training of managers has the objective of training people capable of generating profit, controlling subordinates and achieving predicted goals . (ANSOFF apud CARVALHO, 2000)
The considerations presented allow us to state that the commitment of people to the organization is not a fundamental concern of the bureaucratic model. The rigid framework of structured behavioral control seeks obedience through the bureaucratic control structure.
Thus, human resource systems are designed and managed with a view to controlling people and work routines.
“It indicates that the emergence of global companies has raised competition to a level where innovation continues is the main support for survival. Innovation management becomes the responsibility of the strategic and operational levels, being perceived as an activity to be performed permanently ”. (CLARK; MONKHOUSE apud NENEVÊ, 2003)
The bureaucratic principles of impersonality, predictability and standardization – indefinite repetition of tasks – hinder creativity. Thus, the system denies man the characteristic that differentiates him from other biological species, especially creativity, which is an essential source for innovation.
Nadler ( apud PERROTTI , 2003 ), confirms and expands on the previous ideas , when he presents the driving forces of the changes listed below:
- technological innovations;
- excess supply;
- more demanding customers and owners;
- workforce profile difference you ;
In the same line of reasoning, Cheris (2006) clarifies that the fierce global competition or the scarcity of resources generated an ambience of hostility that, when allied to unpredictability, started to produce a feeling of lack of control in management. The sensation pointed out by the author leads us to the unsatisfactory results achieved by managers, when using traditional management instruments, which are, nothing more and nothing less, the instruments of bureaucratic structures.
Understanding the new solutions involves first identifying what are the main problems to be faced. In this direction, Bennis ( apud CHIAVENATO, 2003 ) advises that the most important difficulties will be in the categories listed below:
Industrialism : As we researched, there is a tendency for human values to be adopted in business activities, even if this implies a loss of efficiency.
Leadership model : The leadership exercised through centralized control is unable to deal, in a practical and effective way , with the continuous creation of large quantities of products and services, technological advances in all areas, globalized operations and workers with more sophisticated educational levels.
Adaptation: Bennis (apud CHIAVENATO, 2003) reports that “The pyramidal structure of bureaucracy, in which power is concentrated at the top, seems the perfect environment for unethical activities”.
The author continues, pointing out the bureaucratic model as the most suitable for stable environments. However, today, unpredictability is the most predictable of the possibilities in the business scenario.
Revitalization: It is necessary to introduce changes that bring vitality to management systems and to individuals. The elements for organizational revitalization are the ability to learn from one’s own experiences, to learn to learn, to self-criticize and to manage one’s own path.
Team management strategies: Given the need to migrate from mechanical-bureaucratic models to organic models, it is essential that companies create strategies to command this process. Whatever the set of strategies adopted, it will certainly not fail to contemplate technology, the environment, the workforce, the organizational structure and the management tools .
With regard to people, we can have strategies for quantity and quality.
The quantity strategies are related to the definition of the number of employees hired directly by the company, the number of people used by other organizations to work providing services, as well as the distribution of these people in the operating units.
Quality strategies are related to the characteristics of the workforce, such as sex, age, values, attitudes and skills. These strategies are delimited by legal rules, to avoid discrimination of any kind.
In mechanical-bureaucratic companies, human resource systems are used, often unconsciously, as educational tools.
The selection of people is delimited by the duties of the position, previous experiences in the activity and psychological characteristics. The process generally consists of applying general and specific knowledge tests, psychological tests, interviews with Human Resources personnel and technicians in the area who are in need of people.
The training comes in the adaptation phase. Large companies generally teach a course called integration for newbies. In this training, the company is presented as a whole, including its success story. Education and training continue throughout the permanence of people in the organization, always inculcating in individuals the mechanical-bureaucratic values of traditional companies.
Performance evaluation is another educational element of the company, because aspects of production itself and compliance with the system are evaluated. That is, the individual’s adequacy in relation to technical standards for carrying out tasks and between quantities produced and planned are checked .
In this way, these human resource systems act as educational agents. All stimulate the practice of bureaucratic values, hierarchy, technical knowledge, specialization and impersonality. Each with their own strategies , but all governed by a central strategy: the control of people.
“ In mechanical-bureaucratic companies, the position is structured based on technical and behavioral standards. As a result, the specialization of tasks is fundamental, given that the professional career is structured in terms of hierarchically organized positions and ranges from admission to the company until retirement. Promotions are based on criteria of technical competence, length of service and discipline. On the other hand, the remuneration is determined by criteria of time in the organization and the position held, and increases as the required technical skills are more complex and time passes ” . (CAMPOS, 1966, p. 18)
The bureaucratic organization of work places task planners in charge of establishing the quality levels of products and services. Therefore, in the bureaucratic context, technical education for people involved in the production of products and services aims primarily at preparing them to produce more quantity.
Strategic thinking is cultivated by quality education. According to Motta (199 7 , p. 102), “the strategic vision emphasizes the achievement of results through a continuous process of anticipating future changes , taking advantage of the opportunities that arise and correcting long-term courses of action”. The process of analyzing the author’s ideas leads us to conclusions that strengthen our perception. Perceiving opportunities and knowing how to extract gains from them is not a task for alienated people, who have no meaning for themselves or for the reality that surrounds them. Changing the company’s long-term action is an impossible activity for those who do not understand this action on a personal level.
COMMITMENT TO HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES
Commitment must be the central strategy that permeates all the company’s human resources practices. Unlike the bureaucratic values that seek to strengthen the controlled-controlling relationship, the values of contemporary companies seek to encourage a relationship between partners with common goals.
In this line of reasoning, Nadler (apud PERROTTI, 2003) says that “in order to face globalized competition, organizational values must include sharing , collaboration, trust and the fundamental authority in knowledge”.
We understand that the evolution processes of the individual’s commitment and conscience are directly related. This evolution occurs through the conscious participation of individuals, as it contributes to the construction of both their own activities and the organization as a whole.
“Alienation makes it impossible for the individual to participate in the decision-making process, creating the impression that their potential and results are not part of the work organization.” (MOTTA, 199 7 , p. 161). Individuals, then, lose the will to make concrete contributions, compromising their personal and professional fulfillment. Other variables contribute to aggravate the situation, as traditionally the participation of people is low and the managers are little involved in conflict management; all of this contributes to weakening individual commitment to the institution.
The selection processes must adopt a new conceptual approach in its most diverse aspects, the strategy must be focused on the selection of people with the best potential for contribution and commitment.
The Selection Committee must ensure that the practices of the process are compatible with the guidelines previously defined.
The members of the commission, coming from the Human Resources area, must guide psychologists to prepare a battery of tests that can choose people with the basic characteristics that will be developed by the other educational processes of the organization. The members of the commission, representatives of the technical areas, must observe not only the depth of specialization, but the breadth and potential of the person’s contribution to the production process as a whole .
This is a powerful educational tool, which for this reason should not be restricted to analyzing the adequacy of performance to the standards of quantity and quality of products and services and discipline.
“ The strategy should be to use evaluation as an instrument to identify potentialities for future contributions and education and training needs, thus establishing a company’s commitment to the individual’s future, both in terms of identification and for provide the practical and theoretical conditions for personal and professional development to become concrete ” . (DRUC KER, 1991, p. 120)
Considering that the company wants team work to become a fact everywhere and at organizational levels , then the assessment instrument should include items that cover values, attitudes and results of teamwork.
The relations of production in the capitalist system impose economic reward as an initial and indispensable condition for people’s commitment to profitable organizations.
In our understanding, the system should be built, based on two strategies: The first is the economic strategy, which is the current strong point, where promotions, salary increases , productivity incentives and indirect benefits are provided. The second is a strategy for valuing the professional, which seeks to reduce the degree of alienation of the individual, when he begins to understand the meaning of his work, that is, he defines his mission and understands his contribution to the organization to achieve its objectives. Continuing, professional opportunities and challenges are offered, where the person can develop and do what he likes, that is, perform a job that has to do with his life project. Thus, realizing the possibility of making work an activity of personal and professional fulfillment.
Drucker (1991, p. 210) states that:
“ No educational institution – not even a postgraduate business school – seeks to impart to its students the basic skills they must have to be effective members of an organization: the ability to present ideas orally and in writing (concisely, simply) and clarity); the ability to work with others; the ability to model and direct one’s work, contribution and career; and, in general, the ability to transform the organization into an instrument of its own aspirations, achievements and application of values ” .
Therefore, the company must invest in a type of education that is certainly not exclusively technical. It is essential, for the company to be successful, the need to develop skills to deal with structures of values and broad concepts , seeking to provide an understanding of itself, of work and of the company, aiming at the conscious participation of individuals .
The true participation of the person in the organization materializes when he is able, through the creative process, to bring about changes in his task and in the organization. In this way, she realizes that the product of work and the company are creatures she helped to create.
In the same direction, Cheris (2006) states that “when a man understands his reality, he can raise hypotheses about the challenge of that reality and look for solutions”. The basic condition of knowing the environment around you only makes sense if you observe a previous condition – the knowledge of yourself. It is centered on oneself, that is, on the set of values that provide self-understanding, that the individual develops an understanding of reality. The s people need to know not only the economic aspects of the business but also need to be provided with training that supports their understanding of the control of the three process abalho and its flow. “
Another aspect pointed out by Motta (199 7 , p. 202): “It is necessary to move towards autonomy of thinking and acting so that individuals can make their best contribution”.
“ Companies are experiencing an intense and turbulent process of change . The greatest source of transformative forces is not the need to humanize work processes and conditions, it is that to survive they must be used as a place for personal and professional development ”. (BENNIS apud CHIAVENATO, 2003 )
Strategies for Commitment in Education and Training
We found that education is an instrument that determines the possibilities in the development of commitments. Technical education, that is, training is based on specialization and produces alienated professionals who cannot find meaning in their own work or in the organization.
“ […] they see the possibility of education being carried out, based on personal values integrated into a seductive organizational model. Enabling, in this way, the identification with the organizational mission. In this condition, the expected rewards are not economic or social, but an encounter with yourself and the product of your work ” . ( KATZ and KAHN apud CRUZ, 1998 )
The education has objetiv the transmit values and guide individuals to find a direction for their lives. In this sense, training is important, however it must come in second place.
On the other hand, Katz and Kahn ( apud CRUZ, 1998 ) consider that “the motivation to internalize organizational goals happens when they symbolize their own values”.
According to Drucker (1991, p. 203-4),
“ Education should aim at the development of entrepreneurs, and for this, attention needs to be aligned to the improvement of individual talent , thus providing excellent performances in what they propose to do. However, educating to understand and commit to moral values is fundamental.
Education for quality enables the person to participate concretely, develops flexibility and enables the individual to be empowered by allowing him to express himself and the consequent individualization, through the creative process ” .
The People Management areas capture and systematize mutual employee perceptions, in the so-called Multiple Sources Assessment – or 360º Feedback , as it is better known – occasion when each employee is evaluated not only by his immediate boss, but also by his colleagues , subordinates, internal and even external customers and suppliers.
These assessments instrumentalize leaders in the practice of the empowerment process , that is, delegation, which consist of training team members to exercise autonomy on the basis of negotiated bases and ranges. This is complemented by periodic results control .
Feedback – or constructive criticism, in the interpretation of Roland and Bee ( apud KOTLER, 2000):
“ […] it is nothing more than a message to a person or group, in the sense of giving him information about how his performance is affecting others. Therefore, it is a mechanism that explores interpersonal relationships as an opportunity for development. However, if it is misused, Feedback can become a “goal against”, damaging people’s motivation and self-esteem, and increasing the risk of conflicts in the workplace ” .
In order to increase the effectiveness of the feedback , the leader or another person in charge of promoting it should prepare the following steps, according to Roland and Bee (2000, p. 51):
- I identify the problem: Goals? Relationship?
- Remember If specific examples enroll and their consequences;
- S er specific and timely, that is, knowing how to choose the right time;
- keep an open mind, without prejudice.
- punctuate aspects that can be changed, such as skills and knowledge;
- focus on the most important aspects, what needs to be done, and what needs to be changed;
- stimulate favorable environments, showing empathy and sense of opportunity;
- present advantages that the interested party may have with the change.
- cite precise examples and their consequences;
- avoid comments about values, personal beliefs, level of education;
- point out positive personality characteristics and those to be improved;
- do not use terms that disqualify the person.
- What did you hope to achieve? Has the objective been achieved?
- What went well? What didn’t go as expected? Because?
- What will you do differently next time?
- How and how often are the return contacts, especially those in which compliance with the agreement will be celebrated .
Thus, f eedback – or constructive criticism – will no longer be a mysterious and full process of “ulterior motives”, to become a process of interpersonal exchanges, which focuses on helping the development of the other, ends up becoming one of the most beautiful instruments of People Management.
Bennis (apud CHIAVENATO, 2003) states that “the main competences of leadership are the management of attention, meaning, trust and self”.
Attention management is presented as the ability to attract people to participate in the leadership project. At this point, the leader is able to make people find a meaning of hope for their own future, within the scenario projected by the vision of leadership, creating the belief that following the ideal of the leader is a way of reaching their own goals. Finally, it is essential that the leader has a deep sense of direction and ability to use his potential flexibly, adapting his actions to the needs of each moment.
According to Senge (apud STARKEY, 1997, p. 354), the skills that must be distributed throughout the organization are “the construction of shared visions, the emergence and questioning of mental models and the commitment to systemic thinking ”. The author recommends the ability to build visions shared by all people in the organization, so it is no longer enough to perform tasks as a team, but to think and negotiate a future as a team.
“ The leader of the future must develop skills to dedicate himself to social issues and preserve the environment; helping people to find meaning in their lives; adapt to changes; manage the relationships between the organization’s mission, its interactions, and its publicly lost values ; and use personal behavior as a definer and determinant of organizational culture ” . (BECKHARD apud HESSELBEIN et al ., 1996)
Covey (apud HESSELBEIN et al ., 1996, p. 42) teaches that “the leader must exercise three functions: explore, align and give autonomy”.
The elements for a final reflection on the qualification that, in general, workers must have to remain included in the labor market, as an employee or self-employed professional, are provided by Faria and Filho (apud FERRETTI, 1994, p. 88).
In order to integrate in the context of the current era and to effectively play a role in economic activity, the individual must, at the very least, know how to read, interpret reality, express himself properly, deal with abstract scientific and mathematical concepts , work together in solving relatively complex problems, understand and take advantage of the technological potential of the world around us. And, above all, it needs to learn to learn, an indispensable condition to be able to keep up with the changes and advances that are increasingly faster that characterize the pace of modern society.
Man, more than ever, to be productive needs to find meaning for himself and for his reality and from this perspective do meaningful work , that is, perform activities that make sense to himself, when viewed from the perspective of his personal goals . These are fundamental conditions for establishing commitments to work, life and happiness.
Addressing Q uest to the S ELECTION and R etenção of T breaths
It is deduced that when it is difficult to recruit workers, there may be a real advantage in employment involvement, simply because it attracts more people and reduces turnover , which is extremely expensive in the case of skilled labor.
In our understanding, talents want to evolve from financial motivation to individual and institutional motivations. On the organization side, there is a need for people capable of knowledge to build relationships of true partnership, so that together they can continue to live in the globalized market with more productivity, more profit and more pleasure.
The greater the compatibility between them, the stronger the professional commitment. It is so much that it has structured controls in the hope of receiving rewards or fear of being punished, according to Bunnis (1995). Here we find evidence that individual motivation is stronger than financial motivation.
Katz and Kahn ( apud CRUZ, 1998) affirm that “an individual may have designed professional values, but that does not mean that he has done the same in relation to the company where he works. It is possible to find people motivated with what they do in a company they don’t like ”.
There is no doubt that the industrial motivation has a stronger bond than the individual, because it opens up space for people to participate in building institutional structures, processes and systems. Therefore, developing partnership relationships and, thus, promoting the retention of talents in the institution.
Corroborating this reflection, Davis (1992, p. 58) emphasizes that “individuals motivated by the institution are favorable to organizational policies and have a low turnover rate”.
Training And quipes of A lto D ESEM mance
The increase in competition between companies made the continuity of mechanical-bureaucratic structures unfeasible and together with them the role assigned to the leader, which determines a new way of acting for Human Resources.
In traditional companies, Human Resources systems develop, through their practices, the pedagogical role of reproducing the values and attitudes inherent to the bureaucratic management model. Individual and team actions only happen after authorization from the hierarchical power structure and through production and behavior patterns.
In contemporary companies, the capacity for innovation, teamwork, acting and thinking strategically, flexibility and speed are vital, and it is essential that the commitment between people and the company develop .
Until the early 1980s, the concept of change was treated as described in dictionaries, that is , the displacement or alteration of the position of things, people or postures. However, in the middle of that decade, some leading companies in the IT market, led by IBM, introduced some new concepts to the market, focusing on better management in serving their customers.
IBM has given its set of ideas the generic name of Change Management  . In this context, any event that occurred within the company would be treated as a change, for that purpose a communication flow was established that would give rise to this type of occurrence . At first, one of the first information dissemination products was implanted in the IBM market , which was PROFS (office automation product), which we can infer as one of the precursors of modern workflows and e-mails .
The s the BJECTIVE s IBM PROFS was with the m: increase network exchange of business information within the organization, enabling staff contact with their bosses with suggestions and ideas  ; and add a little organization in a stable data processing environment , but with little participation by the company in the technological process as a whole.
To support manages changes, was also elaborated idea Service Center (now known as Call Center) and the incl usion of the concept of helpdesk , note that these novelties, in his time, suffered some resistance, but currently are the centers of any customer-centered commercial structures, for example, CRM, B2B, B2C applications and the various “ e- ‘ s” of the moment .
In the 90s, the literature on the subject gained some important works, theorizing and consolidating the idea of change, among the various published titles, two authors stand out: Alvin Toffler with the book Powershift (The displacement of power) and Itchak Adiz es with the text Managing Changes . To elaborate these researches we used the concepts and ideas contained in these two works.
Among the most plausible measures, presenting clear reasons and convincing arguments seems to be one of the first ways to alleviate the negative aspects of change and intensify communication is the most suitable strategy. Seeking suggestions, delegating powers to implement change and defining decision-making forums are also measures that are always defended.
The synthesis of change in terms of the company focuses on the aspect that the human being individually or collectively and the things that surround him are in constant displacement and this constant movement generates new changes and so on.
G ARE OF CHANGES
When you start to research or discuss the phenomenon of change , you can use the view of (ADIZES , 1995) for the concept of problem, which according to your opinion, the simple existence of the problem, is the embryo of any change project and the human being has his whole life moved through problems, thus:
To live is to solve problems; and
To grow is to solve bigger and bigger problems.
The cycle of Adizes is: problems require solutions; solutions create problems; problems.
In the human context, the only rule that can be established is that of change. There is only one situation where humans can have control over all variables, which is when he is dead, in which case he no longer has problems, so he no longer needs to change (in this case they will occur regardless of their action – organic decomposition) ( ADIZES , 1995).
For the author, when the Manager or leader is this “dead weight”, the change process becomes even more difficult . “ I call the manager who plays none of these roles (producer, administrator, entrepreneur and integrator) deadweight . These bad managers are not interested in what, how, why or who, but only in survival. Its hallmarks are low managerial metabolism and low energy ” . (ADIZES, 1995 : 81) .
Cons iderações L erais S Obre M udanças
What number of changes (cultural, technological, political, economic, etc.) are taking place around companies at this very moment? Successful projects, based on a management that is able, in a certain way, to foresee the difficulties that may happen, are usually essential ingredients in a good transition for an organizational change. Manage these types of projet the efficiently in this era of great change , is a major challenge s executive of modern times.
The M udanças are constant
With the advancement of globalization, the evolution of the media and the progress of computer resources, there is a dynamic imposition of progressive acceleration on the processes of change in general. These phenomena have led companies to seek more and more to seek the state of excellence in their activities, whether in relation to a certain product, service, process or relationship with customers.
The success or failure of a company is essentially due to the things that its employees are or are not able to accomplish, the planned change is also aimed at changing the behavior of people and groups within the organization.
“We can think of the planned change in terms of the order of magnitude. The first order change is linear and continuous. It does not imply any fundamental change in the convictions adopted by members of the organization in relation to the world or how the company can improve its functioning.
The second order change, in contrast, is a multidimensional, multilevel, discontinuous and radical change, involving the redefinition of convictions about the organization and the world in which it is inserted ”.
All companies undergo changes during their lifetime. Of course, they always tend to be conservative, and yes, to establish a position in the market, but for this to be achieved (and if one day is), there will be several transformations that the organization will undergo. For ROBBINS (2001, p.528),
“For an organization to survive, it must respond to changes in its environment. When the competition launches new products or services, the government enacts new laws, important sources of inputs leave the market or any other environmental change of this type happens, the organization needs to adapt to the new scenario. Efforts to stimulate innovation, autonomy programs for employees and the adoption of teamwork are some examples of planned change activities, aimed at responding to changes in the company’s environment”.
Who is responsible for managing change activities within the organization? The answer is: the agents of change. They can be administrators or not, employees of the organization or external consultants.
What can a change agent change? The options basically fall into four categories: structure, technology, physical facilities and people.
When thinking about a change, attention should be paid to changes in authority relationships, coordination mechanisms, re-planning of work or modifying any other structural activity. Changing the technology involves changes in the way work is carried out and the equipment used. Changing physical facilities includes changes in the physical space and arrangement of the work environment. Changing people refers to changing employees’ attitudes, skills, expectations, perceptions and / or behavior .
The structure of an organization is defined by the way tasks are divided, grouped and coordinated. Change agents can change one or more elements of the organization’s model. For example, departmental responsibilities can be combined, verticals removed, and control amplitude increased – all to make the organization more “flattened” and bureaucratic. More rules and regulations can be implemented to increase standardization. One step towards decentralization can be done to streamline the decision-making process.
Leaders can also make important changes to the current structural model. This may include changing from a simple structure to one based on teamwork, or creating a matrix model. Agents can consider rescheduling the job or schedule. They can redefine job descriptions, enrich tasks or introduce a flexible timetable. Another option is to change the company’s compensation system. Motivation can be enhanced, for example, with the introduction of performance bonuses or profit sharing.
According to ROBBINS (2001), most of the initial studies on management and organizational behavior turned to the question of technological change. In the early twentieth century, for example, scientific management sought to implement changes based on studies of time and movement, which would increase the efficiency of production . Today, the main ones, tools or methods, in addition to automation and computerization.
Competitive factors or innovations within an industry generally require agents of change to introduce new equipment, tools or operating methods .
Automation is a technological change that replaces people with machines. It started with the Industrial Revolution and remains an option today .
The physical arrangement of the workspace is not a random activity. Generally, administrators carefully consider work demands, formal interactions and social needs when making decisions about space configuration, physical arrangement, installation of equipment, and so on.
The last area in which change agents operate is helping people and groups within the organization to work more effectively together. This category generally involves changes in the attitudes and behavior of members of the organization, through communication processes , decision making and problem solving.
According to STALK and HOUL (1990), in the 90s, companies were concerned, in the foreground with the quality of. In the 1990s, this situation changed. As companies started to present similar products, the difference was made in the relationship with customers. This relationship has become a way of valuing and consolidating the organization’s brand.
For GA TES (1999), companies must react quickly to any type of change. This s and made it a differential, the so-called pro activity , now, a fundamental element for the company, is synonymous with being prepared for any adverse situation.
THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Every change turns out to actually be born of a the need, and this is molded to a given situation. With this, the change is presented as the act of varying, or even changing the conventional ways of both behavior and thought (WAGNER, 1999).
For Burke (2002) quoting Burke ends up providing some distinctions that become essential for the characterization of organizational change in the organization’s development process:
a) Planned change – it is considered as a deliberate, conscious decision, always aimed consequently to improve the entire organizational sector of the company in some way, or perhaps to change the entire system in a quick and profound way.
b) Change unplanned – the organization must respond to certain change s external s , and they may not be so early, for example, the creation of a technology in November that will affect the core of the business enterprise. In the case of unplanned change, the response becomes adaptable, as well as spontaneous.
c) Change of the first order – eventually involve what is called nowadays as “the continued improvement change,” that is, the change consists of changes or modifications of features that already exist in a system, for example, elimination of a layer of management or administration in the organization.
d) Second order change – it is considered as radical change , which tends to transform the entire organization.
The main types of program of change that are constantly used in one organization will eventually meet the need for a better performance of the institution. Thus, Beer (2003) highlights the following categories:
a) Structural change – the organization is seen as a set of parts, which are functional. Thus, one can cite as an example of attempts in the present process: mergers, incorporations , acquisitions, etc.
b) Cost reduction – the various programs of this type end up focusing on the elimination of all activities considered to be non-essential or even other methods aimed at reducing operational costs Compra de Diplomas, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente.
c) Modification of processes – the present shows that the programs aim to change how things end up being accomplished. The process should cover all stages, from the loan to the decision making. There remain doubts that the change process the BJECTIVE make them effective, fast and safe.
d) Cultural change – in this program the objective is the human being in the entire organization, thus, it ends up using command management or even control by a much more participatory style.
Thus , the organizational changes in the organizational development process aim to assist organizations in their constant crises that the market itself imposes on them. Thus, it is sometimes essential to use a change model in order to make the institution again useful for transformations and renovations.
What organizations are currently looking for are ways to continue in the competitive market, in order to compete equally with their competitors, not losing losing their customers to them Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente, in order to come to no longer be able to stabilize in competitiveness.
There is no doubt that for organizations to remain in the competitive market, the presence of organizational change is essential , as it is through it that the institution will be able to really verify what problems it is not allowing it to grow and stabilize.
Organizations must seek to solve all the problems that plague the institution, because only in this way will the institutions really be able to compete equally with their competitors Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente.
In general, what leads the organization to fail quickly are the consequent errors, because when they are not quickly resolved they end up causing the institution to close.
Thus, it is possible to conclude that organizational change in a development process is extremely important because it is through this that organizations will be able to wipe all existing problems, causing them to enter m in the competitive market, competing equally with your competitors Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente.